Demos: Tax loan companies based on harm they cause

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- Demos creates new ‘Harm Index’ - revealing payday loans, council tax & rent arrears, 
and overdue utility bills as having the worst effect on people in debt 
- Report reveals Britain’s £5bn of hidden debt, calling for rent and bill arrears to be 
included in national debt figures 
- FCA should impose food packaging-style traffic light system on all credit products 
and adverts to improve borrowers’ awareness of risks 
 
Loan companies who cause significant harm, such as stress and mental anguish, should face 
greater financial penalties according to a new report by the think tank Demos. 

The change to the levy system is one of a number of proposals put forward as part of a 
ground-breaking analysis of Britain’s household debt crisis. It comes just days before the FCA 
takes over as regulator for the consumer credit industry from April 1 – overseeing credit cards, 
payday loans and debt collection firms. 

Under current FCA regulations mortgage providers pay the highest levy, used to fund financial 
education and debt advice for struggling borrowers, due to their lending the most amount of 
money. 

However, a new ‘Harm Index’ developed by Demos to reveal the true impact of various debts - 
combining financial, emotional and social consequences - finds that mortgages are relatively 
stress-free when compared with other more harmful forms of borrowing. 

Demos asked people to rank each of their debts based on their negative impact such as legal 
consequences, mental wellbeing and affordability. 

Mortgage debts were given a Harm Rating of just 23 out of 100. By comparison the types of 
debt that people felt had the greatest negative impact included Payday Loans (68), Council 
Tax Arrears (62), Utility Bills (57) and Doorstep Lending (50). 

Demos polling of 1,775 adults also revealed: 

- 88% of adults were in some form of debt, while over four-fifths have never accessed any 
support to help with their money worries. 
- The most common reasons for borrowing money were a one-off purchase (36%) and to 
cover an unexpected expense (34%). Almost a quarter of people (23%) had used debt to 
afford everyday essentials.
- Over three times as many young people than pensioners are bearing the brunt of 
increasing debt. 55% of 18-24 year olds, and 48% of 25-34 year olds, said that their debt 
had increased over the past five years, compared to only 13% of over-65s. 
Britain’s £5bn of hidden debt 

Demos analysis reveals that total arrears, combining unpaid rent and council tax, and overdue 
utility bills such as gas and electricity, comes to £4.7bn – almost £200 per household. However, official debt figures for the UK currently ignore arrears, which Demos’s Harm Index 
classes as a high-impact debt, instead choosing to calculate only consumer credit such as 
credit cards and bank loans. 

Figures show that 9% of people face rent arrears while 11% are behind on their utility bills - 
almost double the number who have turned to payday loans (6%). 

The findings lead Demos to call for the official measure to acknowledge arrears in order to 
achieve a complete picture of the nation’s debt problem and ensure those struggling with 
arrears receive targeted advice. 

The report also recommends: 

- Implementing a traffic light rating system on all debt products and adverts – similar to food 
packaging – clearly illustrating the potential harm of a loan, the average amount repaid 
per £100 borrowed and the risks of not repaying. 
- Giving borrowers a legal right to negotiate directly with their creditors before missing 
payments or reaching crisis point – something current lending systems often don’t allow. 
- The FCA and OFT should replicate best practice used by utility companies to implement a 
‘three strikes’ approach on less flexible forms of debt such as arrears and mortgages. 

Jo Salter, a researcher at Demos and author of the report, said: 

“It is only fair that lenders whose practices cause the most harm to individuals should either 
contribute the most to funding debt advice or take steps to minimise their negative impacts. 

“There is a £5bn black hole in official debt statistics and our research shows just how arrears 
on rent, council tax and utility bills often have just as big a negative impact on people as 
payday lending. 

“Deciding which forms of debt are ‘bad’ and need stronger regulation should not be based on 
industry definitions. It should be judged by looking at what types of debt cause people the 
most stress, disrupt their relationships with those around them, and undermine their capacity 
to help themselves – because this is the reality of debt problems.” 

Sara Llewellin, Chief Executive at Barrow Cadbury Trust, said: 

"The Barrow Cadbury Trust welcomes this timely report on debt from Demos, in particular the 
focus on the individual and recommendation that debt statistics should include unpaid rent, 
council tax arrears and overdue utility bills. 

“Also of concern to the Trust is the impact of debt on an individual's emotional resilience and 
quality of life as well as the communities in which they live." 
 
ENDS 
 
 
NOTES TO EDITORS 

The report, titled The Borrowers, authored by Jo Salter is published by Demos on Thursday 27 
March 2014. 
 
This research was supported by Barrow Cadbury Trust. 
 
For further interview or comment with author or to discuss the possibility of case studies 

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